How Does Science As a Profession Work?
Science is an organized venture that constructs and coordinates scientific knowledge in the form of precise testable predictions about the natural world. It involves application of scientific methodologies, principles, observations, research methodology, measurement instruments and other scientific knowledge. The scope of science is huge and it is subject to change on a continuous basis, as new discoveries and technologies are put in practice. In general, it deals with the description and study of the phenomena of nature and human activity in particular. It also deals with the explanation of various patterns and regularities in nature and human behavior.
A scientific theory or hypothesis is a formal prediction of the natural occurrence of a body of knowledge. The natural phenomena studied by scientists are subjected to systematic laws of cause and effect, known as the scientific laws of the universe. The theories are tested against observed facts using different techniques such as experiment, investigation, study, modeling, and synthesis. If a theory is found to be false, then it can either be rejected as false or need to be modified in order to make it consistent with the data. After a theory has been proven false or no longer useful, it can be replaced by an alternate theory or a new scientific paradigm.
Scientific theories are divided into two general categories, namely, postulates and laws. A postulate is a very simple statement that states a general theory or proposition. For instance, every square table made out of four legs will sooner or later collapse to get less balance if we remove one leg at a given point. A law is a well-defined, usually implied rule that specifies the relationship between facts and the deductions of common sense.
When it comes to testing science on the fly, observations are more often than not taken over the top, with strong arguments supporting each side. This is called scientific method in disguise. It makes sure that only the most appropriate data will be considered for hypothesis testing. In the case of biology, observations are more often taken as a starting point for the formation of concepts.
Two of the most popular theories in biology are genetics and evolution. There is considerable disagreement among people when it comes to these two theories. Some people believe that it is largely related to the way in which behaviors are transmitted from one generation to the next while others hold that the principles of genetics are completely irrelevant to the explanation of human behaviors. The facts may not always agree but neither do the opinions.
No matter how strong a theory might be, the facts remain unproven until they are backed up by adequate empirical evidence. This fact cannot be overemphasized since empirical evidence is the only way to eliminate doubt regarding a hypothesis. When there is no empirical evidence contradicting a given hypothesis, it can still be used as a starting point for a scientific method of investigation called hypothesis testing.